The article below is an update of the article entitled Bankruptcy Terms by Shanti Rachmadsyah, SH. To get specific legal advice on your case, consult directly with Justika Partner Consultants. Understanding bankruptcy law through the Bankruptcy Law is not easy. Because the bankruptcy law is regulated in hundreds of articles that are interrelated with each other. Not only the matter of bankruptcy law, the Bankruptcy Law also regulates the Postponement of Debt Payment Obligations ("PKPU"). Bankruptcy is the general confiscation of all assets of the Bankrupt Debtor whose management and settlement is carried out by the Curator under the supervision of the Supervisory Judge as regulated in this Law. Meanwhile, according to Hadi Shubhan in his book entitled Bankruptcy Law: Principles, Norms, and Practices in the Courts, bankruptcy is a condition in which the debtor is unable to make payments on the debts of his creditors. The condition of being unable to pay is usually due to financial distress (p. While bankruptcy is a court decision that results in general confiscation of all assets of the bankrupt debtor, both existing and future ones (p.
Hadi also mentioned that bankruptcy is a commercial solution to get out of the debt problem that is crushing a debtor, where the debtor no longer has the ability to pay these debts to his creditors (p. Read also: Archives of Answers Celebrity Jurist Dr. 2. A debtor who has two or more creditors and does not pay off at least one debt which has matured and can be collected, is declared bankrupt by a court decision, either at his own request or at the request of one or more creditors. There is one debt that has matured or is due and payable (due and payable) which is not paid in full by the debtor. The application for a declaration of bankruptcy must be granted by the Commercial Court if there are facts or circumstances that are simply proven that the two conditions for bankruptcy in Article 2 paragraph (1) of the Bankruptcy Law have been fulfilled. Regarding facts or circumstances that are proven simply, Hadi stated that there are differences in the conceptual limits of this simple proof. Elucidation of Article 8 paragraph (4) of the Bankruptcy Law only mentions the facts of two or more creditors and the fact that money has fallen due and has not been paid.
7. Names and addresses of creditors and debtors.
Meanwhile, the difference in the amount of debt argued by the bankruptcy applicant and the bankruptcy respondent does not prevent the issuance of a bankruptcy declaration decision (p. Still sourced from the same book, there are also completeness that must be fulfilled in filing for bankruptcy in accordance with the form provided by the Commercial Court, among others (p. 7. Names and addresses of creditors and debtors. Also read: SIUP and TDP No Longer Valid, Really? However, from the completeness above, there are several conditions that must be reviewed, such as the invalidity of the company registration certificate (TDP). Then, if the applicant for bankruptcy is a creditor, then it is added with several accessories, including a debt agreement and details of unpaid debts (p. On the other hand, in the event that the debtor has undergone PKPU until a settlement is agreed, but the debtor in his journey fails to fulfill PKPU settlement, the creditor can apply for the annulment of the reconciliation and the debtor is declared bankrupt. The full details can be seen in the Legal Consequences If the Debtor Neglects to Fulfill the Contents of the PKPU Peace. This is our answer regarding the bankruptcy law in brief and the conditions for bankruptcy, hopefully it will be useful. Law Number 37 Year 2004 concerning Bankruptcy and Suspension of Debt Payments Hadi Shubhan. Bankruptcy Law: Principles, Norms and Practice in the Judiciary.
Are you planning to buy an automatic car? Or planning to ride it in the near future? Maybe you already know that the way to drive an automatic car is different from the usual car, which shifts the gears manually. Automatic cars have automatic transmissions, where the automatic car gearshift system is designed to be able to move without having to step on the clutch pedal. Automatic transmission has two types of systems, both of which are also known to be simpler and easier, namely semi-automatic and automatic systems. This is How to Check Jakarta Number Plates, Easy! Even though it's automatic, it doesn't mean that driving an automatic type car is just playing the gas and brakes. You also have to be required to have a good feeling in measuring engine power because automatic cars also have transmissions that you can adjust depending on your needs. You will meet the automatic transmission lever with the code P, R, N, D, D3, 2 and L. If you are a new player in driving an automatic car, you are definitely confused by the letters and numbers that are rarely found. 9 Ways to Get Rid of Stickers on Motorcycles, Smooth Back Again! How to Check Vehicle Number Plate Owners Online, Easy! Complete Car Window Film Price List, Must Know! Well, to help you recognize a dead car gear, Qoala will explain in full about automatic car gear, from how to drive it, the meaning and function of each of the codes above and other information you need to drive an automatic car through this review.
If it's your first time driving an automatic car, you may be a little confused about how to drive it. Especially if you are used to using a manual car, which has a different way of operating the gear from the automatic one. This is because you don't have to adjust the clutch or shift gear because it's done automatically. You just need to stop and go without shifting gears or playing the clutch. But if you are not used to having to be careful, you might get confused between the brake pedal and the pedal or the wrong way to use the automatic car gear. Not infrequently heard of accidents because they are not familiar with how to shift gears automatic cars that are not familiar. Therefore you must know some important things in how to drive an automatic car below. As a beginner you need to be careful so that the lever is always in the correct position. First before starting the engine, the lever position must be in the P position or in the N position. Do not position the lever in reverse or R, these positions are used to reverse. If the lever is in the R position, the car will not start when it is started.
When you enter the key, do not immediately start the engine. You should wait for the needle to spin until the indicator is active or lit which indicates the electricity is ready. Some types of automatic cars provide an indicator in the form of sound when the car is really ready to be started. When first starting, it is recommended to step on and hold the brake pedal for safety reasons because you are afraid that the car will suddenly accelerate forward. Some automatic cars have an automatic procedure that keeps the engine running if you don't press the brake pedal, although some don't. When the engine is on and you want to start moving, the first step that needs to be done is to change the gear position of your automatic car which was originally in position P or N, to position R to go backwards or D to go forward. It is important to depress the brake pedal at the same time as moving the lever in gear. This method can prevent damage to the machine. The transmission lever aka gear or automatic car gear is an important component that affects the speed of the car.
If you want to go at a higher speed, you can choose the sport mode.
In general, whether it's Agya automatic car gear, Mobilio automatic car gear or others have DSLPR and N automatic car gears. Well, you need to understand each function of the automatic car gear. Riding mode or driving mode is present as a supporting feature in automatic cars now with varied choices. You can choose the mode that suits your needs, one of which is the economic mode. This economical mode is suitable for those of you who want to drive an automatic car more relaxed. If you want to go at a higher speed, you can choose the sport mode. This mode will set the car engine to maximum performance. There are still several more types of modes offered, please learn and use as needed. Automatic cars are also usually equipped with manual mode. Even though it's called manual, it doesn't mean you will operate it the same as a non-matic car. That's roughly how to drive an automatic transmission car alias matic. It's actually simpler and more practical than the manual one, but if you're not familiar, it takes time to adjust. Especially from the transmission side which uses different codes. Not only numbers that indicate the order of teeth as in manual cars, but the shape of the teeth of automatic cars also uses a code in the form of letters to indicate their respective functions. What are the codes and their functions? Let's move on to the next discussion. As already mentioned a little above, in general, the transmission lever is marked with letters and numbers, namely P, R, N, D, 2, and L. This is standardly applied to various brands, be it in Xpander automatic car gears, gear shifters Honda Jazz automatic car, Ayla automatic car gear and even Avanza automatic car gear.
Therefore, in order to drive an automatic car well, you need to know what the letters and numbers mean and what their functions are. The letter P on automatic car gear stands for Parking alias parking. When you set the gear in this P position, the transmission will be locked and the car engine cannot move. But that does not mean its function is the same as the parking brake. Unlike the parking brake, when the transmission lever is in the P position, the car's wheels can actually move, but the transmission is locked and the engine cannot move. That's why the P position is used when the car is stopped for a long time or in parking conditions. The R symbol in automatic car gear stands for reverse.