PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) (abbreviated as KAI or PT KAI) is an Indonesian State-Owned Enterprise that provides rail transportation services. PT KAI's services include passenger and freight transportation. At the end of March 2007, the DPR passed the revision of Law No. 13/1992, namely Law No. 23/2007, which stipulates that private investors and local governments are given the opportunity to manage rail transportation services in Indonesia. Thus, the enactment of the law legally ends PT KAI's monopoly in operating trains in Indonesia. On May 8, 2020, Didiek Hartantyo was appointed as President Director to replace the previous position of Edi Sukmoro. On Friday, June 17, 1864, the first train in Indonesia was born. The construction was initiated by the Nederlands-Indische Spoorweg Maatschappij (NIS) with the Samarang-Tanggung route. The first land plowing was carried out in Kemijen Village and inaugurated by Mr. LAJW Baron Sloet van de Beele. However, this route was opened three years later, August 10, 1867. By 1873 three cities in Central Java, namely Semarang, Solo, and Yogyakarta had been successfully connected.
The state railway line in Java connects Anyer (west route) to Banyuwangi (eastern route).
In 1869, for the first time, tram transportation was introduced by the Bataviasche Tramweg Maatschappij (BTM) tram company, for the citizens of Batavia. The means of towing are horses with a wheel width of 1,188 mm. The period of liberal colonial politics apparently resulted in the Dutch government being reluctant to establish its own companies and instead provided broad opportunities for private (KA) companies. Unfortunately, the private company did not provide significant benefits (especially since NIS still needed financial assistance from the Colonial Government), so the Department of Colonial Affairs established another railway operator, Staatsspoorwegen, which stretched from Buitenzorg to Surabaya. In addition, there were also fifteen private railway operators in Java calling themselves "steam tram companies", but despite their name, these companies can already be considered as regional railway operators. As a colonial company, most railway lines in Indonesia had two objectives: economic and strategic. In fact, the conditions for NIS financial assistance include building a railroad to Ambarawa, which has a fort named Willem I (after the name of the King of the Netherlands). The first state railway line was built through the mountains of southern Java, apart from the flat areas in northern Java, for the same strategic reasons. The state railway line in Java connects Anyer (west route) to Banyuwangi (eastern route). In addition to Java, the construction of railway tracks is also carried out in Aceh, connecting Banda Aceh to Uleelhee Port, with a gauge width of 1,067 mm, which is used for military purposes. Then, the width of the previous 1,067 mm gauge was later changed to 750 mm stretching to the south.
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This line then transferred ownership from the Department of War Affairs to the Department of Colonial Affairs on January 1, 1916 following the relative peace in Aceh. There are also railway lines in the Minangkabau realm (built in 1891-1894) and South Sumatra (built in 1914-1932). These two lines are used to traverse the coal railway service from underground mining to the port. In North Sumatra, there is a railway company called Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij which transports a lot of rubber and tobacco in the Deli area. The construction of a railway line was also carried out in South Sulawesi from July 1922 to 1930; as part of a large-scale rail project in Kalimantan and Sulawesi, incorporating the rail system in Sumatra, as well as electrification of the main railway line in Java. But the Great Depression has canceled this effort. Although it was not built, studies on the construction of railway lines in Kalimantan, Bali and Lombok have been completed. During the Japanese occupation, all railway lines (even separate ones) were managed as a single unit. Meanwhile, in Sumatra, it was also managed by the branches of the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces, separately.
The Japanese occupation finally changed the width of the 1,435 mm rail in Java to 1,067 mm, as a solution to the problem of double gauge width. This is not a "real problem" as there are not many material changes in either system, a lot of rail 1. 435 mm was fitted with a third rail in 1940, resulting in rails of mixed track width. After the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence was proclaimed on August 17, 1945, employees of the railway company who were members of the Moeda Kereta Api (AMKA) took over the power of the railways from Japan. On September 28, 1945, the reading of the statement of position by Ismangil and a number of other AMKA members confirmed that from that day on the power of the railways was in the hands of the Indonesian people so that Japan had no right to interfere in railway affairs in Indonesia.
Until December 31, 1949, DKARI and SS/VS still had the status of train operators.
This is what underlies the stipulation of September 28, 1945 as Railway Day and the establishment of the Indonesian Railways Department (DKARI) as a train operator for the territory of the Republic of Indonesia at that time. From the Dutch side, a consortium of public-private railway companies was formed under the name Staatsspoorwegen Verenigde Spoorwegbedjrif (SS/VS). Until December 31, 1949, DKARI and SS/VS still had the status of train operators. As of January 1, 1950, DKARI and SS/VS were merged into Djawatan Kereta Api (DKA). Old Order. Then, on September 15, 1971 it changed to the Railway Company (PJKA). June 1, 1999, Perumka began to show its openness and changed to PT Kereta Api (Persero) (PT KA). On August 12, 2008, PT Kereta Api separated the Jabotabek Urban Transport Division into PT KAI Commuter Jabodetabek (KCJ) which in 2017 became PT Kereta Commuter Indonesia to manage commuter trains in Jakarta and its surroundings. During 2015, the number of train passengers reached 325.94 million. The railway lines to support the operation of PT Kereta Api Indonesia are entirely owned by the Directorate General of Railways, Ministry of Transportation of the Republic of Indonesia (DJKA Kemenhub RI) through the Railway Engineering Center for each region, with KAI only as the operator. Approximately 90% of the railway lines are entirely Dutch colonial heritage, and the rest are new lines, such as branches to the airport. PT KAI is also the largest contributor of total non-tax state revenues in the railway environment through the track access charge (TAC), and receives infrastructure maintenance and operation fees from DJKA.
The railway lines are spread across Sumatra and Java. In Java, all major cities have at least two or three major railway stations and are traversed by major cross-railway lines. This line stretches from Merak-Jakarta-Cirebon-Semarang-Surabaya on the northern route, and Jakarta-Cirebon-Purwokerto-Yogyakarta-Solo-Madiun-Surabaya on the southern route of Java. In addition to the operation of the two lines, there are connecting routes such as the Jakarta metropolitan route, Semarang-Solo, Cikampek-Bandung-Kroya, and the Bangil-Kertosono "pocket line". Next is the eastern route of Java (Surabaya-Probolinggo-Jember-Banyuwangi). In Sumatra, the railway lines are separate, with North Sumatra and Aceh only served on the Medan-Rantau Prapat/Belawan/Siantar/Tanjungbalai and Krueng Mane-Krueng Geukueh routes in Aceh. In West Sumatra, the only active route is Padang-Naras/Kayu Tanam for passenger services and Bukit Putus-Indarung for the Semen Padang train.