PCB) on the computer. This component allows important electronic devices in a system to be connected to each other, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory. It also provides connectors for other additional devices such as printers, scanners, or microphones. Unlike the backplane, the motherboard usually contains critical sub-systems, such as the central processor, input/output controllers and chipset memory, interface connectors, and other components that are integrated for general use. Motherboard specifically means PCB with expandable capabilities. As the name suggests, the board is often referred to as the "mother" of all of its accompanying components, which often include peripherals, interface cards, and daughtercards: sound cards, video cards, network cards, hard drives, and other forms of persistent storage; TV tuner card, a card that provides an extra USB or FireWire slot; and various other custom components. Similarly, the term mainboard describes devices with a single board and no expansion or additional capabilities, such as controller boards in laser printers, television sets, washing machines, cell phones, and other embedded systems with limited expansion capabilities.
The ubiquitous S-100 bus in the 1970s is an example of this type of rear field system.
The term logic board refers to a specific brand, coined by Apple in the early 1980s for the motherboard in Macintosh computers. Prior to the invention of the microprocessor, the digital computer consisted of several printed circuit boards in a card cage box with components connected by a back plane, a set of interconnected sockets. In very old designs, copper wires were separate connections between card connector pins, but printed circuit boards soon became standard practice. The central processing unit (CPU), memory, and peripherals are housed on individual printed circuit boards, which are connected to the back plane. The ubiquitous S-100 bus in the 1970s is an example of this type of rear field system. The most popular computers of the 1990s such as the Apple II and IBM PC have published schematic diagrams and other documentation enabling motherboards with rapid reverse engineering and third-party replacement. Usually intended for building new computers compatible with the example, many motherboards offer additional performance or other features and are used to upgrade the manufacturer's original equipment. A motherboard provides the electrical connections that other components of the system use to communicate. Unlike the back plane, it also contains a central processing unit and houses other subsystems and devices. A desktop computer generally has a microprocessor, main memory, and other important components connected to the motherboard. Other components such as external storage, controllers for video and sound display, and peripheral devices can be attached to the motherboard as plug-in cards or via cables; in modern microcomputers, it is increasingly common to integrate some of these peripherals onto the motherboard itself. A socket (or slot) into which one or more microprocessors can be installed.
In the case of CPUs in spherical grid array packages, such as the VIA C3, the CPU is directly soldered to the motherboard. The power connector, which receives electrical power from the computer's power supply and distributes it to the CPU, chipset, main memory, and expansion cards. As of 2007, some graphics cards (eg GeForce 8 and Radeon R600) require more power than the motherboard can provide, and thus special connectors have been introduced to plug them directly into the power supply. Connector for hard drives, usually only for SATA. In addition, most motherboards include logic and connectors to support commonly used input devices, such as USB for mouse and keyboard devices. Early personal computers such as the Apple II or IBM PC included only this minimal peripheral support on the motherboard.
Motherboards are manufactured in various sizes and shapes called computer form factors, some of which are specific to individual computer manufacturers. However, the motherboards used in IBM-compatible systems are designed to fit a wide range of case sizes. Since 2005, most desktop computer motherboards use the ATX standard form factor - even those found in Macintosh and Sun computers, which are not made from commodity components. For example, ATX cases typically accommodate microATX motherboards. Computers generally use highly integrated, miniature and customizable motherboards. A CPU Socket (central processing unit) or slot is an electrical component that attaches to a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and is designed to house a CPU (also called a microprocessor). This is a special type of integrated circuit socket designed for very high pin counts. The CPU socket provides many functions, including the physical structure to support the CPU, support for heat insulation, facilitating replacement (and reducing costs), and most importantly, establishing an electrical interface with both the CPU and PCB. The CPU socket on the motherboard is most commonly found on most desktop and server computers (laptops typically use surface-mounted CPUs), especially those based on the Intel x86 architecture.
The CPU socket type and motherboard chipset must support the CPU series and speed. With the cost and size of integrated circuits steadily decreasing, it is now possible to include support for multiple peripherals on the motherboard. By combining multiple functions on a single PCB, the physical size and total cost of the system can be reduced; Highly integrated motherboards are thus very popular in small form factors and budget computers. Temperature, voltage, and fan speed sensors that allow software to monitor the health of computer components. Motherboards are generally air cooled with heat insulation which is often mounted on the larger chips in modern motherboards. Insufficient or improper cooling can cause damage to the internal components of the computer, or cause a crash. Passive cooling, or a single fan mounted on the power supply, was sufficient for many desktop computer CPUs until the late 1990s; since then, most require CPU fans to be installed in heat insulators, due to increased clock speeds and power consumption.
A 2003 study found that several fake computer crashes and common reliability issues, ranging from screen image distortion to I/O read/write errors, could not be attributed to software or peripheral hardware, but to aging capacitors on the PC motherboard. Standard motherboards use electrolytic capacitors to filter the DC power distributed across the board. These capacitors age at a temperature-dependent rate, as their water-based electrolyte slowly evaporates. This can lead to loss of capacitance and subsequent malfunction of the motherboard due to voltage instability. 10°C (18°F) below. At 65°C (149°F) a life span of 3 to 4 years can be expected. Insufficient case cooling and high temperatures around the CPU socket exacerbate this problem. With the top blower, motherboard components can be kept below 95°C (203°F), effectively doubling the life of the motherboard. The motherboard contains some non-volatile memory for initializing the system and loading some startup software, usually the operating system, from some external peripheral devices. Microcomputers such as the Apple II and IBM PC use ROM chips that are installed in sockets on the motherboard. When the power is on, the central processor will load its program counter with the boot ROM address and start executing instructions from the ROM. These instructions initialize and test the system hardware which displays system information on the screen, performs a RAM check, and then loads the initial program from the peripheral device. If none is available, the computer will perform the task from another memory store or display an error message, depending on the model and design of the computer and the ROM version.
Most modern motherboard designs use a BIOS, stored in an EEPROM chip soldered or installed in the motherboard socket, to boot the operating system. Non-operating system boot programs are still supported on earlier-modern IBM PC machines, but it is currently assumed that boot programs will be complex operating systems such as Microsoft Windows or Linux. USB devices, such as memory storage devices. On newer motherboards, the BIOS can also patch the central processor microcode if the BIOS detects that the installed CPU is one of the published averages. Many motherboards now use a BIOS successor called UEFI. Miller, Paul (2006-07-08). "Apple sneaks new logic board into whining MacBook Pros". W1zzard (2005-04-06). "Pinout of the PCI-Express Power Connector". Carbo, Michael. "The CPU and the motherboard". Chiu, Yu-Tzu; Moore, Samuel K. (2003-01-31). "Faults & Failures: Leaking Capacitors Muck up Motherboards". Platforms shall be UEFI Class Three (see UEFI Industry Group, Evaluating UEFI using Commercially Available Platforms and Solutions, version 0. 3, for a definition) with no Compatibility Support Module installed or installable. BIOS emulation and legacy PC/AT boot must be disabled. What is a motherboard? This hardware-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Are you planning to buy an automatic car? Or planning to ride it in the near future? Maybe you already know that the way to drive an automatic car is different from the usual car, which shifts the gears manually. Automatic cars have automatic transmissions, where the automatic car gearshift system is designed to be able to move without having to step on the clutch pedal. Automatic transmission has two types of systems, both of which are also known to be simpler and easier, namely semi-automatic and automatic systems. This is How to Check Jakarta Number Plates, Easy! Even though it's automatic, it doesn't mean that driving an automatic type car is just playing the gas and brakes. You also have to be required to have a good feeling in measuring engine power because automatic cars also have transmissions that you can adjust depending on your needs. You will meet the automatic transmission lever with the code P, R, N, D, D3, 2 and L. If you are a new player in driving an automatic car, you are definitely confused by the letters and numbers that are rarely found. 9 Ways to Get Rid of Stickers on Motorcycles, Smooth Back Again! How to Check Vehicle Number Plate Owners Online, Easy! Complete Car Window Film Price List, Must Know! Well, to help you recognize a dead car gear, Qoala will explain in full about automatic car gear, from how to drive it, the meaning and function of each of the codes above and other information you need to drive an automatic car through this review.
If it's your first time driving an automatic car, you may be a little confused about how to drive it. Especially if you are used to using a manual car, which has a different way of operating the gear from the automatic one. This is because you don't have to adjust the clutch or shift gear because it's done automatically. You just need to stop and go without shifting gears or playing the clutch. But if you are not used to having to be careful, you might get confused between the brake pedal and the pedal or the wrong way to use the automatic car gear. Not infrequently heard of accidents because they are not familiar with how to shift gears automatic cars that are not familiar. Therefore you must know some important things in how to drive an automatic car below. As a beginner you need to be careful so that the lever is always in the correct position. First before starting the engine, the lever position must be in the P position or in the N position. Do not position the lever in reverse or R, these positions are used to reverse. If the lever is in the R position, the car will not start when it is started.