This gray-white transition metal is solid, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, and valuable. Its name comes from the Spanish term platinum, which literally means "little silver". Platinum is a member of the platinum group and an element in group 10 on the periodic table. It has six naturally occurring isotopes. This metal is one of the rare elements in the earth's crust with an average abundance of about 5 g/kg. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some natural deposits, mostly in South Africa, which account for 80% of world production. Platinum is the least reactive metal. Its amazing resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, has earned it the title of a precious metal. Consequently, platinum is often found as a naturally occurring elemental platinum. Because it occurs naturally in the alluvium sands of rivers, it was first used by the Natives of pre-Columbian South America to make artifacts. European writings refer to the 16th century, but the report of Antonio de Ulloa who published a new metal in Colombia in 1748 became the object of research by scientists. Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dental equipment, and jewelry. Because it is a heavy metal, platinum has health problems when exposed to its salts, but due to its corrosion resistance, it is not as toxic as some other metals. Compounds containing platinum, such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin, are used in chemotherapy to fight certain types of cancer. Pure platinum is a silvery white metal that is lustrous, ductile, and malleable.
Its resistance to wear and stain is suitable for use as jewelry.
Platinum is more ductile than gold, silver or copper, so it is most ductile than most other pure metals, but less malleable than gold. This metal has excellent resistance to corrosion, is stable at high temperatures and has stable electrical properties. Platinum reacts slowly with oxygen at very high temperatures. The metal reacts violently with fluorine at 500 °C (932 °F) to form tetrafluoride. The metal is also attacked by chlorine, bromine, iodine, and sulfur. Platinum is insoluble in hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, but dissolves in hot aqua regia to form chloroplatinic acid, H2PtCl6. Its physical properties and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications. Its resistance to wear and stain is suitable for use as jewelry. 3 is less common, and is sometimes stabilized by metallic bonds in bimetallic (or polymetallic) species. As expected, tetracoordinated platinum(II) compounds tend to adopt a 16-electron planar quadrilateral geometry.
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As a weak acid, platinum has a great affinity for sulfur, as for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); a number of DMSO complexes have been reported and the choice of reaction solvent must be carried out very carefully. Platinum has six naturally occurring isotopes: 190Pt, 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, and 198Pt. The most abundant isotope is 195Pt, making up 33.83% of all platinum. It is the only stable isotope without a zero spin; with spin, the 195Pt satellite peak is frequently observed in 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy (ie, Pt-phosphine and Pt-alkyl complexes). 190Pt is the least, only 0.01%. Among the naturally occurring isotopes, only 190Pt is unstable, although it decays with a half-life of 6.5×1011 years, causing the activity to be 15 Bq/kg of natural platinum.198Pt can undergo alpha decay, but decay has never been observed (half-life is known to be longer than 3.2×1014 years); therefore, it is considered stable.
Platinum also has 31 synthetic isotopes in the atomic mass range from 166 to 202, bringing the total number of known isotopes to 37. Among these, the least stable is 166Pt, with a half-life of 300 s, while the most stable is 193Pt with a half-life. 50 years. Most platinum isotopes decay by some combination of beta and alpha decay. 188Pt, 191Pt, and 193Pt decay by (mainly) electron capture. 190Pt and 198Pt undergo multiple beta decay pathways. 0.005 ppm in the Earth's crust. It is sometimes confused with silver (Ag). Platinum is often found alone chemically as natural platinum and as an alloy with other platinum group metals and with iron. Platinum is most commonly found as a secondary deposit in alluvial deposits. Alluvial deposits used by pre-Columbian peoples in the Chocó Department, Colombia are still a source of platinum group metals today.
The rare sulfide mineral, cooperite, (Pt,Pd,Ni)S, contains platinum along with palladium and nickel.
Another large alluvial deposit was in the Ural Mountains, Russia, and is still mined today. In nickel and copper deposits, platinum group metals occur as sulfides (eg, (Pt,Pd)S), tellurides (eg, PtBiTe), antimonides (PdSb), and arsenides (eg, PtAs2), and as alloys with nickel or copper.. Platinum arsenide, sperrylite (PtAs2), is the principal source of platinum associated with nickel ore in the Sudbury Basin deposit in Ontario, Canada. The rare sulfide mineral, cooperite, (Pt,Pd,Ni)S, contains platinum along with palladium and nickel. Cooperite is found on Merensky Reef around the Bushveld complex, Gauteng, South Africa. The largest known primary reserve is in the Bushveld complex in South Africa. Large copper-nickel deposits near Norilsk, Russia, and the Sudbury Basin, Canada, are two other large deposit locations.
Platinum is higher in abundance on the Moon and meteorites.
In the Sudbury Basin, the enormous amount of nickel ore processed attests to the fact that platinum is only about 0.5 ppm in the ore. In 2010, South Africa was the top producer of platinum, with a market share of almost 77%, followed by Russia with 13%; world production in 2010 was 192,000 kg (423,000 lb; 192 t). Platinum deposits are found in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. MOU has been signed between the Geological Survey of India and TAMIN - Tamil Nadu Minerals Ltd. Platinum is higher in abundance on the Moon and meteorites. Correspondingly, platinum is found to be slightly more abundant at bolide impact sites with Earth associated with post-impact volcanism, and can be mined economically; The Sudbury Basin is one such example. The hexachloroplatinic acid mentioned above is probably the most important platinum compound, as it acts as a precursor to many other platinum compounds.
Hexachloroplatinic acid itself has a wide range of applications in photography, zinc etchings (English: zinc etchings), non-erasable inks, plating, mirrors, porcelain, dyes, and catalysts. Heating this ammonium salt in the presence of hydrogen reduces it to elemental platinum. Potassium hexachloroplatinate is also insoluble, and hexachloroplatinic acid has been used in the gravimetric determination of potassium ions. The three reactions above are reversible reactions. Platinum(II) and platinum(IV) bromides are also known. Platinum hexafluoride is a strong oxidizing agent capable of oxidizing oxygen. Platinum(IV) oxide, PtO2, also known as Adams catalyst, is a black powder soluble in aqueous KOH and concentrated acid. PtO2 and PtO, which are less common, both decompose on heating. Unlike palladium acetate, platinum(II) acetate is not commercially available.