As the central bank, BI's role is different from other banks. The duties and authorities of BI regulate the banking industry in Indonesia. Although now some of these roles have been transferred to the Financial Services Authority (OJK). Other main tasks of BI are maintaining monetary stability, running the payment system, and storing state treasury. Then, as the central bank, does Bank Indonesia seek profit from its operations? It should be noted that in Law Number 3 of 2004 concerning Bank Indonesia, BI as a central bank is not like a commercial bank which aims to seek profit. But even so, still referring to the law, BI can also collect or benefit from some of its monetary activities. However, because it is not a corporation that aims to seek profit and does not have shareholders, the profit from the business carried out by BI is then called a surplus, or if it suffers a loss it is called a deficit. In simple language, profit (surplus) is not the goal of the central bank. Surplus is a side effect of the policies and activities taken by the central bank. But if in its operations, BI receives a profit, then the profit is still recorded in the books which is then reported as a surplus.
Funds will be saved and will be used when needed again.
Likewise, when there is a loss, it is recorded as a deficit. As with a bank in the form of a company, this surplus or deficit financial statement must also be regularly audited. Because the central bank is a state institution, the audit is carried out by a state auditor such as the Supreme Audit Agency (BPK). Where did Bank Indonesia's profits go? In accordance with Law Number 3 of 2004, the use of a central bank surplus is regulated in Article 62 paragraph (1). It is stated that BI's profit or surplus is used for general reserve funds. The general reserves can later be reused by BI if there is a risk in the implementation of its duties and authorities that reduces capital. In other terms, funds from the surplus will be replayed by BI as the fund manager. Funds will be saved and will be used when needed again. If the profit or surplus obtained by BI is so large that it is more than sufficient to fill general reserves, then BI can deposit it into the state treasury to be used by the government as APBN funds. Bank Indonesia received a surplus from the side effects of the policies and activities taken by the central bank. The biggest surplus comes from interest. For example, under normal conditions many new policies are issued to secure financial system stability.
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One of them is from the side of APBN financing. In this critical condition, Bank Indonesia (BI) is given more authority to absorb Government Securities (SBN) issued by the government in the primary market directly. Thus, the government must pay interest back to Bank Indonesia. Although, basically the central bank is not doing business or looking for profit. Quoted from Kontan, May 26, 2020, Bank Indonesia or BI recorded an operational surplus after tax of Rp. 33.35 trillion throughout 2019. This achievement has exceeded the surplus target in the 2019 Annual Budget of Bank Indonesia (ATBI) of Rp. 17.25 trillion.. In BI's 2019 Annual Financial Report, it is seen that the central bank scored an operational surplus because the total burden of BI throughout last year was smaller than its income. BI's total income throughout 2019 reached Rp 91.80 trillion, with the largest income coming from the implementation of monetary policy, which was Rp 90.16 trillion. This consists of interest income of Rp 48.75 trillion, return income of Rp. 1.19 trillion, financial asset transactions of Rp. 18.7 trillion, foreign exchange (foreign exchange) transactions of Rp. 21.41 trillion, and others of Rp. 104.34 billion. Other income came from payment system management of Rp 373.57 billion, macroprudential regulation and supervision of Rp 7.16 billion, income from providing funding of Rp 147.86 billion, and other income of Rp 1.12 trillion. Meanwhile, the total expenses incurred by the central bank during the past year were recorded at Rp 47.58 trillion, with the largest burden coming from the implementation of monetary policy which amounted to Rp 23.78 trillion. This consists of interest expense of Rp 20.28 trillion, compensation expense of Rp 2.43 trillion, and other expenses of Rp 1.08 trillion. Other expenses came from payment system management of Rp 4.65 trillion, macroprudential regulation and supervision of Rp 257.01 billion, remuneration to the government of Rp 7.06 trillion, and general and other expenses of Rp 10.83 trillion. Although it still prints a surplus, this surplus is apparently still smaller than the operational surplus in 2018 which reached Rp 48.02 trillion. Furthermore, in the 2020 ATBI, BI targets an operational surplus of Rp 20.85 trillion.
This is How to Check Jakarta Number Plates, Easy!
Are you planning to buy an automatic car? Or planning to ride it in the near future? Maybe you already know that the way to drive an automatic car is different from the usual car, which shifts the gears manually. Automatic cars have automatic transmissions, where the automatic car gearshift system is designed to be able to move without having to step on the clutch pedal. Automatic transmission has two types of systems, both of which are also known to be simpler and easier, namely semi-automatic and automatic systems. This is How to Check Jakarta Number Plates, Easy! Even though it's automatic, it doesn't mean that driving an automatic type car is just playing the gas and brakes. You also have to be required to have a good feeling in measuring engine power because automatic cars also have transmissions that you can adjust depending on your needs. You will meet the automatic transmission lever with the code P, R, N, D, D3, 2 and L. If you are a new player in driving an automatic car, you are definitely confused by the letters and numbers that are rarely found. 9 Ways to Get Rid of Stickers on Motorcycles, Smooth Back Again! How to Check Vehicle Number Plate Owners Online, Easy! Complete Car Window Film Price List, Must Know! Well, to help you recognize a dead car gear, Qoala will explain in full about automatic car gear, from how to drive it, the meaning and function of each of the codes above and other information you need to drive an automatic car through this review.
Therefore you must know some important things in how to drive an automatic car below.
If it's your first time driving an automatic car, you may be a little confused about how to drive it. Especially if you are used to using a manual car, which has a different way of operating the gear from the automatic one. This is because you don't have to adjust the clutch or shift gear because it's done automatically. You just need to stop and go without shifting gears or playing the clutch. But if you are not used to having to be careful, you might get confused between the brake pedal and the pedal or the wrong way to use the automatic car gear. Not infrequently heard of accidents because they are not familiar with how to shift gears automatic cars that are not familiar. Therefore you must know some important things in how to drive an automatic car below. As a beginner you need to be careful so that the lever is always in the correct position. First before starting the engine, the lever position must be in the P position or in the N position. Do not position the lever in reverse or R, these positions are used to reverse. If the lever is in the R position, the car will not start when it is started.
It is important to depress the brake pedal at the same time as moving the lever in gear.
When you enter the key, do not immediately start the engine. You should wait for the needle to spin until the indicator is active or lit which indicates the electricity is ready. Some types of automatic cars provide an indicator in the form of sound when the car is really ready to be started. When first starting, it is recommended to step on and hold the brake pedal for safety reasons because you are afraid that the car will suddenly accelerate forward. Some automatic cars have an automatic procedure that keeps the engine running if you don't press the brake pedal, although some don't. When the engine is on and you want to start moving, the first step that needs to be done is to change the gear position of your automatic car which was originally in position P or N, to position R to go backwards or D to go forward. It is important to depress the brake pedal at the same time as moving the lever in gear. This method can prevent damage to the machine. The transmission lever aka gear or automatic car gear is an important component that affects the speed of the car.
There are still several more types of modes offered, please learn and use as needed.
In general, whether it's Agya automatic car gear, Mobilio automatic car gear or others have DSLPR and N automatic car gears. Well, you need to understand each function of the automatic car gear. Riding mode or driving mode is present as a supporting feature in automatic cars now with varied choices. You can choose the mode that suits your needs, one of which is the economic mode. This economical mode is suitable for those of you who want to drive an automatic car more relaxed. If you want to go at a higher speed, you can choose the sport mode. This mode will set the car engine to maximum performance. There are still several more types of modes offered, please learn and use as needed. Automatic cars are also usually equipped with manual mode. Even though it's called manual, it doesn't mean you will operate it the same as a non-matic car. That's roughly how to drive an automatic transmission car alias matic. It's actually simpler and more practical than the manual one, but if you're not familiar, it takes time to adjust. Especially from the transmission side which uses different codes. Not only numbers that indicate the order of teeth as in manual cars, but the shape of the teeth of automatic cars also uses a code in the form of letters to indicate their respective functions. What are the codes and their functions? Let's move on to the next discussion. As already mentioned a little above, in general, the transmission lever is marked with letters and numbers, namely P, R, N, D, 2, and L. This is standardly applied to various brands, be it in Xpander automatic car gears, gear shifters Honda Jazz automatic car, Ayla automatic car gear and even Avanza automatic car gear.
Therefore, in order to drive an automatic car well, you need to know what the letters and numbers mean and what their functions are. The letter P on automatic car gear stands for Parking alias parking. When you set the gear in this P position, the transmission will be locked and the car engine cannot move. But that does not mean its function is the same as the parking brake. Unlike the parking brake, when the transmission lever is in the P position, the car's wheels can actually move, but the transmission is locked and the engine cannot move. That's why the P position is used when the car is stopped for a long time or in parking conditions. The R symbol in automatic car gear stands for reverse.